Gariwo: the gardens of the Righteous

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Dissent in Eastern Europe

  • Exemplary figures reported by Gariwo
    • Bulgaria
    • Blaga Dimitrova prolific Bulgarian writer and dissident against the pro-Moscow Communist regime
    • Radoj Ralin satirical poet and symbol of Bulgaria's Civil Conscience
    • Zelu Zelev anti-marxist philosopher who led Bulgaria in the fight against Soviet totalitarianism
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Vaclav Benda one of the most active members of the Charter '77
    • Jan Carnogursky intellectual who challenged Czechoslovakian totalitarianism and fought for civil liberty
    • Miklos Duray Slovakian dissenter dedicated to reform and recognizing all ethnic minorities
    • Vaclav Havel leader of the "Velvet Revolution"
    • Jan Chryzostom Korec underground priest in Czechoslovakia, targeted for his faith
    • Dana Nemcova educator and anti-totalitarian dissenter in Czechoslovakia
    • Jan Palach hope in the skies of Prague
    • Jan Patocka historian and fundamental dissenter in the Czechoslovakian opposition forces
    • Anna Sabatova champion of human rights and dissenter against the Czechoslovakian communist regime
    • Josef Zverina Moravian survivor of Totalitarianism who became one of the most significant theologians of the 20th century
    • East Germany
    • Wolf Biermann musician and poet who criticized East Germany for militarism and totalitarianism
    • Barbel Bohley pacifist and important member of the Anti DDR forces in East Germany
    • Robert Havemann German scientist who worked tirelessly against the Nazi Regime and later Soviet totalitarianism
    • Reiner Kunze fearless critic of the Soviet regime in East Germany
    • Walter Schilling passionate pastor who preached for acceptance in repressive East Germany
    • Hungary
    • Istvan Bibo he helped Jews with false documents and he wrote political analyses in which he opposed the Communist party's dictatorial tendencies
    • Ferenc Donath liberal lawyer and dissident in Hungary and key actor during the Hungarian revolution
    • Janos Kenedi Hungarian dissident who championed the freedom of press in Hungary
    • Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty primate of Hungary and leading instigator of the revolution
    • Ottilia Solt educator and underground journalist who fought for the rights of the poor in Hungary
    • Miklos Szabo strove to unite opposition forces against Hungarian totalitarianism
    • North Korea
    • Kang Chol-hawan a Korean journalist who escaped from a North Korean gulag
    • Poland
    • Wladyslaw Bartoszewski anti-nazi journalist committed to aiding the Jews and fostering post-war reconcilation
    • Bogdan Borusewicz he promoted numerous forms of solidarity and material support for the students and workers arrested for political reasons and he joined the Workers’ Defence Committee (KOR)
    • Marek Edelman vice commander of the Warsaw insurrection
    • Bronislaw Geremek he was a Polish social historian and politician and he always had an exclusive interest for the poorest social classes
    • Ryszard Kaczorowski he served as the last President of Poland in exile
    • Lech Kaczynski Polish lawyer who aided Lech Walesa in resisting the Communist Regime
    • Janusz Krupski underground journalist and dissident against Polish totalitarianism
    • Zofia Kuratowska the doctor of Solidarity movement
    • Jacek Kuron one of the leaders of Poland's civil opposition the Communist regime
    • Tadeusz Masowiecki Solidarnosc member
    • Adam Michnik historian and writer who resisted censorship and soviet repression in Poland
    • Halina Mikołajska Polish dissident actress
    • Alina Pienkowska the legend of Solidarnosc
    • Maciej Plazynski he was a Polish liberal-conservative politician
    • Father Jerzy Popieluszko Polish priest, martyred in his fight to protect freedom of expression.
    • Irena Zofia Romaszewska and "Radio Solidarnosc"
    • Arkadiusz Rybicki striker turned member of parliament, always fighting for worker's rights
    • Anna Walentynowicz the "Mother Courage" of the Danzig shipyards
    • Lech Walesa Polish trade unionist who spearheaded the Opposition forces against the communist regime
    • Rumania
    • Gabriel Andreescu bravely fought against human rights abuses in Eastern Europe
    • Doina Cornea an active voice against totalitarianism in Romania
    • Mircea Dinescu Romanian dissenter who used satire to criticize the political world
    • Vasile Paraschiv Romanian trade unionist who rejected unjust behavior in the Romanian Communist Party
    • Laszlo Tokes he is the honorary chairman of the Democratic Rumanian-Hungarian Association
    • Ion Vianu Romanian psychiatrist who stood against the use of psychiatry as a political weapon
    • USSR
    • Lydia Chukovskaya anti-stalinist writer who published her work despite heavy Soviet censorship
    • Leonid Fëdorov Russian orthodox priest who passionately resisted Soviet secularism
    • Pavel Florenskij profoundly thoughtful philosopher killed for his personal expression
    • Vasily Grossman in his "Life and Fate" he denounced the crimes of both communism and nazism
    • Nadezhda Mandel'shtam wife of poet Osip Mandel'shtam who devoted herself to preserving his works
    • Osip Mandel'shtam Russian poet who clashed with ideological conformism in Soviet society
    • Lev Emmanuilovic Razgon Russian writer and victim of Stalinism who published the account of his experiences
    • Varlam Shalamov anti-stalinist poet who published the tale of his imprisonment in Siberia.
    • USSR, France
    • Jacques Rossi French spy and victim of Stalin's great purge who published the GULag Handbook, a testimony of the GULag experience