Gariwo: the gardens of the Righteous

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Shoah, the "Catastrophe"

Within the context of Second World War (1939-1945) the genocide of the Jewish people was perpetrated in Europe (1941-1945). The “final solution“, six million of Jews exterminated, was prepared by Hitler, who had been handed power in Germany in 1933. Starting from the publication of Mein Kampf, Hitler planned the nationalsocialist revolution based on a racist ideology.
In the memory of the Jewish people and in the closing verdict of the International Military Court, the death toll of the Nazi extermination is estimated to 6,000,000 people. In reality the most credited historians, including Raul Hilberg, set this number to ebout 5,200,000.
The main master mind behind the extermination is Adolf Hitler, as he identified the real enemy of the pure Aryan (A maiuscola) race as the Jewish community living in Germany and throughout Europe; the Jews had committed no act of hostility towards the Germans, but were nonetheless held up as enemies. In order to carry out this plan Hitler deployed the German state apparatus and a modern organization of mass murder, which was assigned to Adolf Eichmann. The latter accurately carried out the plan, organizing the trains that would take the Jews to the Nazi death camps from every corner of Europe.
The key dates for the planning of genocide are two: September 1935, when the Nuremberger Lawss were passed (they were laws about citizenship rights which discriminated among the Germans, Jewish non-Aryans, half-breed Jews of first and second degree, based on their descent and their belonging to the Jewish faith; and 1939, when the laws about the forced emigration from the Jews from the German territory into the Polish ghettoes were passed. Genocide itself was instead planned during the Wannsee Conference in 1942, in which the German officers planned the estermination of 11.000.000 Jewsi.

The key ideological motive is racism, meant as holding the German people up as superior, of “pur Aryan race”, as opposed to the “Jewish enemy”, a deicide already and now responsible for Germany’s economic weakness. The possibilità of a racial ‘pollution’ leads him to plan mass murder to make the entire world “judenfrei”. The extermination of Jews is made possible by the fact that Hitler has turned Germany into a totalitarian states. Besides the control of the traditional political leverages, Nazi propaganda influences the masses to get them to believe the Jews are the true obstacles to the fullfillment of the magnificent German “garden” conceived by Hitler. From 1933 to 1940 Nazism tried to solve the Jewish issue by the means of emigration; from 1941 to 1945 the Jews were exterminated. First of all the Jews were deprived of their civil rights and expelled from the German territories. Once the ghettoes were created in the lands that had been conquered in the East, the Jews were shut into them and forced to live in precarious conditions. First massacred by the Einsatzgruppen, they were eventually deported in the death camps in Poland, where, after a selection, they were either murdered immediately or exploited until they were exhausted. The Jews, who were considered as “Untermenschen”, were eliminated in many ways: in the gas chambers, in the camps of forced labour, in the German factories, in the lagers through deliberate acts of brutality from the SS guards and by gradually reducing their food rations, through summary executions carried out by the Einsatzgruppen, through a pseudo-scientific kind of experimentation and so on.

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